Manot 1 is an adult individual represented by an almost complete skullcap (calvaria) very similar to those of modern humans.
But it has a relatively small brain size, which is estimated at around 1,100 m L, compared to modern human brain which is about 1,400 m L.
A research team used new techniques to analyze the chemicals inside these fossil cells.
They found protein remnants where they should no longer exist—given these rocks' vast age assignment.
Its unique features are the bun-shaped occipital, the moderate arch of the parietals, flat sagittal area, presence of a suprainiac fossa, and the pronounced superior nuchal line.
The discoverers concluded that: Its period of existence falls within that of another extinct humans, the Neanderthals.
In other words, it appears that none of the expected evolution has occurred across 1.88 billion supposed years.
The study authors wrote, "In addition, these microfossils still contain amide functional groups (absorption feature at 288.2 e V), which were likely to be involved in the proteinaceous compounds synthetized by the once living organisms." Biochemistry studies reveal that amide bonds have plenty of potential to perform spontaneous chemistry.
They found the skullcap alongside stone tools, charcoal pieces, and other human remains.
Tools found included a Levallois point, burins, bladelets, overpassed blades, and Aurignacian tools.